Hélio Oiticica (1937-1980)


July 26 – Hélio Oiticica is born in Rio de Janeiro, the first child of engineer, mathematics teacher, and entomologist José Oiticica Filho (1906-1964) – who was also one of the first experimental photographers in Brazil – and Ângela Santos Oiticica (1903-1972). His brothers César and Claudio are born in 1939 and 1941, respectively.

Until 1948, Hélio and his brothers are home schooled in mathematics, science, languages, history, geography by their parents. However, their intellectual development is also strongly influenced by their grandfather José Oiticica (1882-1957), a highly reputed philologist, teacher, writer, and a renowned anarchist who published the newspaper Ação Direta [Direct Action].


José Oiticica Filho receives a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship and moves with his family to Washington, D.C., for two years to work at the United States National Museum – Smithsonian Institution. For the first time, Hélio Oiticica and his brothers attend classes outside their home at the Thomson School. They also visit museums and attend art exhibitions.


July – the Oiticica family returns to Rio de Janeiro.


Hélio writes and translates plays which he stages at home with his brothers and cousins under the direction of their aunt, actress Sônia Oiticica (1921-2007).


December / January – The Oiticica family travels to visit the II Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, which includes special galleries dedicated to Paul Klee (1879-1940), Alexander Calder (1898-1976), Piet Mondrian (1872-1944), and Pablo Picasso (1881-1973).


Hélio Oiticica and his brother César Oiticica begin to study painting with Ivan Serpa (1923-1973) at the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro (MAM-RJ).


Hélio Oiticica comes into contact with the Grupo Frente and participates in the group’s second exhibition at Rio de Janeiro’s Museu de Arte Moderna. It was probably during this period that he met the artist Lygia Clark (1920-1988) and art critics Mário Pedrosa (1900-1981) e Ferreira Gullar (1930).

Starts to paint gouaches on cardboard.

Show: July 14 –  II Exhibition of  Grupo Frente, at MAM-RJ.


Continues to produce gouaches on cardboard. In December, he begins to work on a series of twenty-seven pieces in this medium, called Secos.

Shows: “Pintura Brasileña Contemporánea” [Contemporary Brazilian Painting], Instituto de Cultura Uruguayo Brasileño (ICUB), Montevideo; March 17 – III Exposição do Grupo Frente [Third exhibition of Grupo Frente], Itatiaia Country Clube, Resende, State of Rio de Janeiro; April 12 – “Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta” [National Exhibition of Concrete Art], Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (MAM-SP); June 23 – IV Exposição do Grupo Frente, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro.


Along with Ivan Serpa (1923-1973), Aluísio Carvão (1920-2001), César Oiticica (1939), Alberto Pinedo and Henry Dobbin, he participates in the organization of the Instituto de Arte Infantil [Children’s Art Institute], a primary school that emphasizes the teaching of visual arts. Operational until 1959, the school was located in a house at number 39, Rua Lins de Vasconcelos.

Hélio and his brother César attend the Noite de Arte Concreta [Concrete Art Night] at the União Nacional dos Estudantes (UNE), an event that takes place in Rio de Janeiro concurrently with the I Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta, at the Ministério da Educação facilities. São Paulo Concrete poet Décio Pignatari (1927) presents a lecture that provokes intense controversy in the audience divided between radicals – the brothers Haroldo (1923-2003) and Augusto de Campos (1931), and Ferreira Gullar, among others, and champions of more traditional poetry, such as Olegário Mariano (1889-1958) and Ledo Ivo (1924).

June 30 – José Oiticica dies.

The Secos series evolve into another group of gouaches on cardboard, to which Oiticica would refer to (in a 1972 text) as Metaesquemas.

Shows: February – I Exposição Nacional de Arte Concreta, Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro; September – “Arte Moderno en Brasil” [Modern Art in Brazil], Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires; September – IV Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo.


The year signals the last of the Metaesquemas and the beginning of the Série Branca [White Series].


Lygia Clark and Ferreira Gullar invite Hélio Oiticica to join the Grupo Neoconcreto in Rio de Janeiro.

The Série Branca [White Series] evolves from painting on cardboard to oil paintings on canvas and wood. Paints several monochromes, including triangular paintings in white and red, as well as the Invenções [Inventions] series. Begins the Bilaterais [Bilaterals] series.

Shows: September /December: V Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo;

November 11 – “Exposição Neoconcreta,” held at Belvedere, Salvador, State of Bahia.

Writings: December, 1959/May, 1964 – Diary 59/64, doc nº 0182 AHO/PHO. Diary 59/63, doc nº0207/59 AHO/PHO.


Begins to work at the Museu Nacional as technical assistant to José Oiticica Filho.

Continues to work on the Série Invenções [Inventions Series] (1959-1962) and Núcleos [Nuclei], initiates his Relevos Espaciais [Spatial Reliefs] (1960) and begins to conceptualize his spectator participation projects and makes Penetrable PN1

Shows: August – IX Salão Nacional de Arte Moderna [8th National Exhibition of Modern Art], Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro; November 21 – II Exposição Neoconcreta, Ministério da Educação, Rio de Janeiro; “Konkrete Kunst” [Concrete Art], organized by Max Bill, at the Zurich Helm Haus, Zurich.

Writings: November 26 “Cor, Tempo, Estrutura.” Jornal do Brasil (SDJB) [Rio de Janeiro]. doc. nº 0015/60. AHO/PHO.


Mário Pedrosa writes “Os Projetos de Hélio Oiticica”.

Continues to work on the Invenções [Inventions] and Núcleos [Nuclei] series and makes the model for the Projeto Cães de Caça [Hunting Dogs Project], consisting of five penetrables by Hélio Oiticica, Ferreira Gullar’s Poema Enterrado [Buried Poem] and Reynaldo Jardim’s Teatro Integral [Whole Theater].

Shows: April 27 – “Exposição Neoconcreta” [Neoconcrete Exhibition], Museu de Arte Moderna, São Paulo; November – Projeto Cães de Caça, Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro.

Writings: January 7 Diary 61/65, doc nº0187. AHO/PHO.


Continues to produce the Nuclei, which he classifies as Small, Medium and Large.

Writings: December 1 – “A Transição da Cor para o Espaço e o Sentido da Construtividade” [The Transition of Color from Painting to Space and the Meaning of Construction”]. Habitat 70 [Rio de Janeiro]: 49-54; April 4 – “Testemunho” [“Testimonial”], doc. nº 002; AHO / PHO.


Meets French photographer Desdémone Bardin (1929-2001). Over the next few years, she photographs the artist’s works and his everyday life with friends at both the Mangueira Hill shantytown and the Mangueira School of Samba court.

Conceives the Bólides, creating the first work of this series [B1 Box Bólide 1].

Writings: October 29 – “Bólides,” doc nº 1816/63 AHO/PHO.


July 26 – José Oiticica Filho dies.

Sculptor Jackson Ribeiro introduces Oiticica to the Escola de Samba Estação Primeira de Mangueira [Mangueira School of Samba], where the artist becomes a fan and enthusiastic passista, or samba solo dancer. He frequents the shantyown community and strikes up friendships with Nildo, Miro, Jerônimo, Mosquito, Rose, Maria Helena, and many others.

After witnessing a remarkable scene in Rio de Janeiro’s North Zone – a precarious, improvised construction made by a beggar from four wooden slats, ropes and other elements, in the midst of which he is able to make out the word “Parangolé” written on a piece of burlap – the experience suggests to him the title for a new series of works he is developing. at the time.

Death of Manuel Moreira (1941-1964), also known as Cara de Cavalo [Horse Face]. This famous outlaw had murdered Detective Milton de Oliveira Le Cocq after a four-month manhunt, having been finally shot to death by police in the city of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro. A friend of Hélio Oiticica, the artist paid tribute to him in 1966 with B33 Box Bólide 18.

In addition to producing Bólides, he conceives the first Parangolé. The first three pieces of the series are a tent, a banner, and a flag. Parangolé P4 Cape 1 is the first color proposition meant to be worn on the body.

 Writings: June 8 – “Os Bólides e o Sistema Espacial que Neles se Revela” [The Bólides and the Spatial System They Reveal], doc nº 0001 AHO / PHO; November 1 – “Bases Fundamentais para Definição do Parangolé,” doc nº 0035/64 AHO/PHO; 25 de novembro – “Anotações sobre o Parangolé,” doc nº 0070/64 AHO/PHO.


June 15 – Receives a letter from Paul Keeler, a friend of Sérgio Camargo (1930-1990), inviting him to participate in a fifteen-artist show at the Signals Gallery, along with Soto, Cruz Diez, Gabo, Calder (1898-1976), Challida and Sérgio Camargo. Photographs of works and texts by HO appear in the Signals Newsbulletin.

The “Soundings Two” exhibition is held at the Signals Gallery, in London, from July 22 to September 25. In addition to Hélio Oiticica and the above-mentioned artists, the show features works by Albers (1888-1976), Arp (1887-1966), Brancusi (1876-1956), Pol Bury (1922-2005), Lygia Clark (1920-1988), Duchamp (1887-1968), Kandinsky (1866- 1944), Klee (1879-1940), Yves Klein (1928-1962), Malevich (1878-1935), Mondrian (1872-1944), Léger (1881-1955) and Mira Schendel (1919-1988), among others.

August 12 – The first public presentation of the Parangolé series takes place at the MAM-RJ’s “Opinião 65” exhibition – a breakthrough in the history of Brazilian art. There, Hélio Oiticica ignites tremendous controversy when he is forbidden to present the capes worn by dancers from Mangueira inside the museum. In furious indignation and to the applause of other artists, journalists, critics and the audience, the artist abandons the building and continues the parade throughout the museum’s gardens.

“Bases Fundamentais para Definição do Parangolé” [Cornerstones for a Definition of Parangolé] and “Anotações sobre o Parangolé” [Notes Concerning Parangolé] appear in a mimeographed artist’s edition on the occasion of the “Opinião 65” exhibition.

Meets Guy Brett (1942) and Paul Keeler who have come to Brazil for the eighth São Paulo Biennial (September/November). Keeler enters into agreements with Hélio Oiticica for an exhibition at Signals. The works are sent to London but the show never takes place.

Edited by David Medalla (1942), the Signals Newsbulletin for June/July displays the B15 Glass Bólide 4, “Earth” and B18 Glass Bólide o 6, “Metamorphosis”.

December 22 – Begins to work as a telegraph operator at the Empresa Brasileira de Rádio Difusão (Radiobrás) [Brazilian Radio Broadcasting System].

Shows: September/December – Eighth São Paulo Biennial; July 22 – “Soundings Two,” Signals Gallery, London. August 12 – “Opinião 65,” Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro.

Writings: March 17 – “O Trabalho do Artista” [The Artist’s Task], doc nº 2080/65 AHO/PHO; May 6 – “A Criação da ‘Capa’” [The Concoction of the Cape], doc nº 2085/65 AHO/PHO.


For his experiments in environmental art at the I Bienal Nacional de Artes Plásticas da Bahia [First National Visual Arts Biennial of Bahia], Hélio Oiticica is awarded a cash prize by the sponsor bank, Prêmio Banco do Estado da Bahia.

“Posição e Programa – Programa Ambiental – Posição Ética” is published in the July issue of Revista Gam, in Rio de Janeiro.

Makes B33 Box Bólide 18Poem Box 02 “Homage to Cara de Cavalo“. Holds his first solo exhibition titled Manifestação Ambiental nº 1 [Environmental Manifestation no. 1] at Galeria G4, Rio de Janeiro. According to the artist, it “represents the environmental fusion of Nuclei and Bólides, to which elements such as the Reliefs that preceded the Nuclei have been added, because their sense of color might well have led them to be bolides.” He presents the billiard room appropriation project titled Sala de Bilhar [“Snooker Room”], at the Museu de Arte Moderna’s “Opinião 66” show in Rio de Janeiro.

Shows: April 12 – “Supermercado 66” [Supermarket 66], Galeria Relevo, Rio de Janeiro; June 20 – “Manifestação Ambiental nº 1,” Galeria G4, Rio de Janeiro; July 25 – “A Vanguarda Brasileira,” Reitoria da Universidade de Minas Gerais; August 18 – “8 Artistas,” Galeria Atrium, São Paulo; August 25 – “Opinião 66,” Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro; December 28 – I Bienal Nacional de Artes Plásticas da Bahia, Convento do Carmo, Salvador.

Symposium: Proposta 66 [Proposal 66]. “Situação da Vanguarda no Brasil” [Situation of the Avant-Garde in Brazil]. Biblioteca Municipal, São Paulo.

Writings: July – “Posição e Programa – Programa Ambiental – Posição Ética” [Position and Program – Environmental Program – Ethical Position]; August 14 – “Parangolé Poético e Parangolé Social” [Poetic Parangolé and Social Parangolé], doc nº 0254/66 AHO/PHO; November – “Situação da Vanguarda no Brasil” [Situation of the Avant-Garde in Brazil], doc nº 0248/66 AHO/PHO.


February 15 – Begins an intensive exchange of letters with Guy Brett, which leads to the negotiations surrounding the Whitechapel Gallery exhibition in London.

Conceives his Suprasensorial Propositions, presented at the Fourth Exhibition of Modern Art in Brasília and the Bólides of the “Trilogia Sensorial” [Sensorial Trilogy]. Introduces Penetrables PN2 and PN3 under the name Tropicália, exhibited at the “Nova Objetividade Brasileira” [New Brazilian Objecthood] show at the MAM, in Rio de Janeiro.

Designs Éden, a group of penetrables and suprasensorial propositions for exhibition at London’s Whitechapel Gallery in 1969.

Shows: April 6 – “Nova Objetividade Brasileira” [New Brazilian Objecthood], Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro; May – “Vanguarda Atual,” Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro; May 20 – Ninth Tokyo Biennial; May 22 – “Happening – Parangolés no Aterro” [Parangolés at the Aterro Landfill], Aterro do Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro; September 30 – Fifth Paris Biennial; October 3 – “Artistas Brasileiros na Bienal de Paris” [Brazilian Artists at the Paris Biennial], Galeria Bonino, Rio de Janeiro; December – IV Salão Nacional de Brasilia.

Seminar: June 1 – “Declaração de Princípios da Vanguarda” [Declaration of Principles of the Avant-Garde]. Escola de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro.

Writings: April 6 – “Esquema Geral da Nova Objetividade,” in Nova Objetividade Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro: Museu de Arte Moderna), 5 -19; n/d – “Parangolé: Da Antiarte às Apropriações Ambientais” [Parangolé: From Antiart to Environmental Appropriations]. GAM 6 [Rio de Janeiro]



On display during Caetano Veloso’s concert at the Sucata night club in Rio de Janeiro, Hélio Oiticica’s “Seja marginal seja herói” [“Be an outlaw, be a hero”] banner is confiscated by federal Police, who shut down the concert.

Guy Brett’s Kinetic Art – the Language of Movement is published in London by Studio Vista/Reinhold. The book contains a chapter on Hélio Oiticica.

Meets Haroldo de Campos, at a lecture cycle titled Primeira Cultural [First Cultural] in Belém.

December 3 – Travels to London to mount the Whitechapel Galery show.

Continues to produce the parangolés, bólides and penetrables.

Shows: February 2 – “Young Brazilian Art,” Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh; April 9 – “O Artista Brasileiro e a Iconografia de Massas” [The Brazilian Artist and the Iconography of the Masses]. ESDI, Rio de Janeiro; December 1 – “Young Brazilian Art,” Brazilian Embassay, London; n/d – “Six Latin American Countries,” The Lively Midland Group Gallery, London.

Happening: February 18 – Festival das Bandeiras, Praça General Osório, Rio de Janeiro; August 4 – “Apocalipopótese,” an event conceived and produced by Rogério Duarte and Hélio Oiticica at the Aterro do Flamengo, with the participation of several artists, including Antonio Manuel, Lygia Pape, Sami Mattar, Raimundo Amado, Torquato Neto and dancers from the Mangueira, Portela, Salgueiro and Vila Isabel samba schools.

Films and film collaborations: Participates as an actor in the film Cancer, by Glauber Rocha (1939-1981); some of the artist’s works appear in Arte Pública, a documentary by Paulo Martins e Jorge Sirito; Raimundo Amado’s Apocalipopótese is a documentary record of the happening that took place at the Japanese Pavilion in Rio de Janeiro’s Aterro do Flamengo [Flamengo Landfill Park].

Seminars and Symposia: May 23 – Debate – “Critério para o Julgamento das Obras de Arte Contemporâneas” [Criteria for Pondering Contemporary Art Works], Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro; June 10 – Debate – “Amostragem da Cultura Loucura Brasileira” [“Sampling Brazilian Culture Madness”], Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, event organized by Rogério Duarte (1939) and Hélio Oiticica; August 11 – “Primeira Cultural” [“First Cultural”]. Lecture series organized by Mário Schemberg (1914-1990), Reitoria da Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém.

Writings: March 4 – “Tropicália,” doc nº 0128/68 AHO/PHO; November 24 – “O Sentido de Vanguarda do Grupo Baiano,” Correio da Manhã [Rio de Janeiro]: 4; n/d – “O Aparecimento do Suprasensorial” [The Emergence of the Suprasensorial]. GAM 13 [Rio de Janeiro]: 39; n/d – “O Objeto”. GAM 15 [Rio de Janeiro] 26-27.


Solo exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, in London. Art critic Guy Brett is the show’s curator and the artist names it “The Whitechapel Experience”.

Following the exhibition, Hélio Oiticica is invited to become a resident artist at Sussex University in Brighton.

May – Travels to Paris where his writing is published in Rhobo, an art magazine edited by Jean Clay.

Show: February 24 – “Hélio Oiticica”, Whitechapel Gallery, London.

Symposium: July 7 – 1st International Tactile Sculpture Symposium at California State College, Long Beach.

Writings: May 1 – “Obra Aberta.” Cadernos Brasileiros 5. [Rio de Janeiro]: 69-70; June 10 – “Statement: Hélio Oiticica” (addressed to the French representation committee at the tenth edition of the São Paulo Biennial), doc nº 0441/69 AHO/PHO; June 18 – “The senses Pointing Towards a New Transformation”. The 1st International Tactile Sculpture Symposium (Los Angeles: California State College Long Beach), doc nº 0486/69 AHO/PHO; September 11 – “Londocumento.” [Londocument] Última Hora [Rio de Janeiro]; November 10 – “As Possibilidades do Crelazer” [The Possibilities of Creleisure], doc nº 0305/69 AHO/PHO; s/d – “A Obra, seu Caráter Objetal, o Comportamento” [The Work, its Character as Object, Behavior]. Gam 18 [Rio de Janeiro]: 48-49; s/d – “Como Cheguei à Mangueira” [How I arrived At Mangueira], doc nº 1863/sd AHO/PHO.


January 1 – Returns to Rio de Janeiro.

Travels to New York where he exhibits his Ninhos [“Nests”] at the “Information” show, curated by Kynaston McShine at the Museum of Modern Art.

Awarded a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship and establishes residence in New York City at 81, Second Avenue.

Show: June 30 – “Information,” Museum of Modern Art, New York;

Happening: August 23 – “Orgramurbana,” event organized by Luís Otávio Pimentel and Flamarion, at the Aterro do Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro, Hélio Oiticica shows his Area Bólide Água [Water]

Writings: April 21 – Text for the Information exhibition catalogue (New York: Museum of Modern Art), doc. nº 0324/70 AHO/PHO; September 4 – “Subterrânia” [From the Underground], O Pasquim [Rio de Janeiro], doc nº 0289/70 AHO/PHO.


Show: November 29 – “Rhodislândia,” University


October 27 – Death of Hélio Oiticica’s mother Ângela Santos Oiticica.

Meets Quentin Fiore.

Shoots Agripina é Roma – Manhattan [Aggrippina is Rome – Manhattan] on Super 8mm film.

Shows: May 5 – “Exposição,” Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro. Organized by Carlos Vergara (1941), at which Hélio Oiticica’s Projeto Filtro – Para Vergara [Filter Project – for Vergara] is presented for the first time; October 30 – “Metaesquemas,” Galeria Ralph Camargo, São Paulo.

Happening:  “Encuentros de Pamplona,” Pamplona, Spain.

Writings: March 22 – “Experimentar o Experimental” [To Attempt the Experimental], published in the magazine Navilouca, in 1974, doc nº 0380/72 AHO/PHO; June 14 – Projeto Filtro – Para Vergara, doc nº 0236/72 AHO/PHO


Coins the concept of quasi-cinema.

Begins Neyrótika (slide series)

Implements his Cosmococa – Program in progress: CC1 Trashiscape; CC2 Onobject; CC3 Maileryn; CC4 Nocagions; CC5 Hendrix –War, a collaboration with Neville D’Almeida.

Prepares the Conglomerado [Aggregations], a work that involves collecting all the experiences contained in the Newyorkaises (his New York output).

Happening: February 2 – “Parangolé in the Subway,” New York.


CC6 – Coke Head’s Soup, with Thomas Valentin; CC7, with Guy Brett, unfinished project; CC8 – Mr. D; CC9 – Cocaoculta; Renô Gone, with Carlos Vergara (unfinished). Stonia and Shelter Shield Penetrable projects. Somethin’fa the head Parangolés 1 and 2.


Working within his concept of quasi-cinema, he shoots Helena Inventa Ângela Maria [Helena Invents Ângela Maria], a slide series evoking the famous 1950s Brazilian chanteuse.


Begins work on a new series of penetrables called Magic Square and a group of objects called Topological Ready-Made Landscapes.

Show: July – “Projeto Construtivo Brasileiro” [Brazilian Constructivist Project], Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro.


Returns to Rio de Janeiro and establishes himself on rua Carlos Góes, in the Leblon quarter.

Assembles the Ready Constructible. Builds scale models for Magic Square Penetrables 3 and 5; Builds the Tenda-luz [Light Tent] penetrable for Júlio Bressane’s film O Gigante da América [The Giant from America]. Installs two appropriations in the bathroom of his studio and names them Experiência do Mito-DesmitificadoAvenida Presidente VargasKyoto-Gaudi [“Experiencing the Demythified Myth – Avenida Presidente Vargas-Kyoto-Gaudi”] and Manhattan Brutalista – Objet Semi-Mágico-Trouvé [Brutalist Manhattan – Semimagical Found Object].

Show: “Objeto na Arte: Brasil Anos 60” [The Object in Art: Brazil in the 1960s], Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP), São Paulo.

Happening: November 12 – “Mitos Vadios” [Vagrant Myths] takes place in an empty lot on the Rua Augusta in São Paulo.

Writings: October 24 – Delírio Ambulatório [Wandering Delirium], for his performance at the “Mitos Vadios” [Vagrant Myths] event. Published in the newspaper Diário de São Paulo on November 5, 1978, doc nº 0943/78 AHO/PHO.


Moves to Rua Ataulfo de Paiva, in the Leblon quarter.

Drafts the plan for his last penetrable Azul in Azul [Blue in Blue].

Shows: July 2 – “PN27 Rijanviera,” Café Des Arts, Rio de Janeiro.

Happening: December 18 – “Acontecimento Poético Urbano 1 / Kleemania” [Urban Poetic Event no. 1 / Kleemania], Caju, Rio de Janeiro.

Film: HO, a film by Ivan Cardoso (1956) about Hélio Oiticica and his work.

Writings: April 11 – “Manifesto Caju” [Caju Manifesto], doc nº 0114/79 AHO/PHO.


Concludes the scale model for A Invenção da Luz [The Invention of Light] penetrable, begun in 1978.

Happening: “Acontecimento Poético Urbano 2 / Esquenta para o Carnaval” [Urban Poetic Happening no. 2 / Warm up for Carnival], at Mangueira Hill.

March 22 – The artist suffers a massive, incapacitating stroke and passes away seven days later at Clínica São Vicente, in Rio de Janeiro.


Sources consulted for the Hélio Oiticica chronology (1937-1980):

Arquivos Hélio Oiticica (AHO /PHO).

Interviews with César and Claudio Oiticica.

Luciano Figueiredo, Cris Dercon. “Chronology.” In Hélio Oiticica. Rotterdam: Witte de With, 1992.

Frederico Morais. Cronologia das Artes Plásticas no Rio de Janeiro 1816-1994. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks 1995.